He incorporated the queen into his rule, consulting her on the business of the realm and issuing charters jointly. Later, William of Tyre wrote of Melisende's right to rule following the death of her father that "the rule of the kingdom remained in the power of the lady queen Melisende, a queen beloved by God, to whom it passed by hereditary right". He complained to the High Court of Jerusalem, a group composed of nobles and church leaders who made legal decisions. Hamilton, Bernard. In 1161, Melisende had what appears to have been a stroke. Encyclopedia.com. As the new king, Baldwin II had been encouraged to put away Morphia in favor of a new younger wife with better political connections, one that could yet bear him a male heir. Things did not go well between the couple almost from the beginning. When Melisende bore a son and heir in 1130, the future BaldwinIII, her father took steps to ensure Melisende would rule after him as reigning Queen of Jerusalem. Soon thereafter an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Hugh was attributed to Fulk or his supporters. Hugh's enemies helped spread these rumors to the king, who became jealous, and soon the men were openly antagonistic. William of Tyre wrote that Fulk "did not attempt to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without [Melisende's] knowledge". When Baldwin became the king of Jerusalem in 1118, he was "encouraged" to put aside his wife, because Morphia had only given him daughters (three at the time) and as a king, Baldwin would, obviously, need a male heir. journeys reader's notebook grade 1 volume 2 pdf; new homes orlando under $200k; symbols of betrayal in dreams; hyundai santa fe console buttons; fit to fat to fit jason cause of death; another word for pick up and drop off; pratt pullman district food; stellaris star wars: fallen republic . Soon the kingdom was split into two camps: those who supported Melisende and those who supported her husband. arkansas lottery ticket checker; mayweather family tree; alex danson married; heaven's gate house demolished; nj herald real estate transfers 2021; island region in the south pacific crossword clue; zuni vs catawba crape myrtle. Zengi was busy keeping his lands together in Iraq, while the Muslims in Egypt had their own internal battles and rivalries to deal with and left the Crusader states alone. She performed occasional roles in government until her death in 1161. Fulk's wealth, connections, and influence made him as powerful as the King of France, according to historian Zoe Oldenbourg. In maintaining her grip on the throne, she faced challenges from neighbouring Muslim powers, her husband and even her own son. Her allies were not strong enough to defeat the army Fulk brought to Antioch, but the two sides were evenly matched enough that Fulk did not have the power to punish the rebels. . In 1139 Fulk actually sent a Crusader force to fight with Unur at Damascus against Zengi, their common enemy. There were accusations of an affair with the queen, and one of Fulks knights tried to assassinate Hugh. why did melisende retire from power Product categories. He chose a European nobleman, Count Fulk V of Anjou, a powerful French region. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content.  Baldwin raised his daughter as a capable successor to himself and Melisende enjoyed the support of the Haute Cour, a kind of royal council composed of the nobility and clergy of the realm. Melisende's connections, especially to her sister Hodierna, and to her niece Constance of Antioch, meant that she had direct influence in northern Syria, a priceless connection since Baldwin had himself broken the treaty with Damascus in 1147. The Crusades Reference Library. Even though her son fought her for power, it was unlikely he believed she was an incapable leader: he was quite happy to trust her regency whilst he was away. why were melisende parents important. Melisande, instead of being the heiress of Edessa, thus became the heiress to the throne of Jerusalem. The Crusades Reference Library. Her son Baldwin III followed her in death only a few months later, in February 1162, and her younger son Amalric I succeeded his brother, ruling until his own death in 1174. She was involved in both internal affairs and foreign policy decisions and enjoyed again the power she had held before Baldwin's rebellion. What if he had named someone else? Fulk left Anjou to his young son, Geoffrey, which in turn gave his son the prestige to enable him to marry Matilda of England, the heir to the English throne. Hugh allied himself with the Muslim city of Ascalon, and was able to hold off the army set against him. Oldenbourg wrote that Fulk had "broken the resistance of his principal vassals on his own domains and paralyzed all attempts at emancipation by the townspeople. After Baldwin II's death on 21 August 1131, Melisende began to rule jointly with her husband, who persisted in his efforts to wrest political power from her. After the failed crusade, a serious conflict arose between the boy-king Baldwin III and Melisande. Her intellect rivals that of Dr. Gero, though she may be even smarter than he was. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Jerusalem But Fulk's right to rule was initially questioned by many lords of the Christian states, since he was not related by blood to the ruling family. An ambitious but pious man, Fulk could hardly refuse the hand of the heiress of Jerusalem. Name variations: Alais or Alix. Professor Bernard Hamilton of the University of Nottingham has written that, while William of Tyre's comments may seem rather patronizing to modern readers, they amount to a great show of respect from a society and culture in which women were regarded as having fewer rights and less authority than their brothers, their fathers or even their sons. However, this wasnt enough for Baldwin and conflict broke out again. Hamilton, Bernard (1978), "Women in the Crusader States: the Queens of Jerusalem". (Fulk's son by a previous marriage, Geoffrey of Anjou, was married to a woman--and would-be ruling queen--whom we have met before, After Baldwin II's death on 21 August 1131, Melisende began to rule jointly with her husband, who persisted in his efforts to wrest political power from her. There was a big difference, however, between feudalism in Europe and in the Middle East. When Fulk was killed in a hunting accident in 1143, Melisende publicly and privately mourned for him. The first rulers built it up beyond the borders of Jerusalem to include the port cities of Jaffa, Acre, Sidon, and Beirut. However, Constance refused to remarry, despite the arguments made by both Melisande and Melisande's sister Hodierna, countess of Tripoli. Although Constance's marriage marked the end of Alice's political career, Alice had the satisfaction of seeing Raymond's anti-Byzantine policies fail completely. Melisende was born in Edessa, a county and city located along the northern boundary of the states the Crusades had established in the Middle East at the end of the First Crusade (109599), a part of modern-day southern Turkey. The opposition to Fulk's right to act as overlord of the states, as Baldwin had, was led by Princess Alice; in early 1132, she publicly denied Fulk's authority over Antioch and claimed the regency for herself once again. Due to his young age, she was co-ruler and regent, so in effect she was the sole ruler. Baldwin had Melisende, Fulk, and baby Baldwin named as co-rulers at their coronation. ), to become his heir. Melisende was fourth in the line of rulers of the city and kingdom, but even during her lifetime this arrangement was falling apart. The historian Hugo Buchtal wrote that, There is no account of how Melisende received this gift but shortly after its creation, the royal union appeared stronger than ever. costco return policy ring doorbell (1) diy essential oil perfume spray witch hazel (1) omi hellcat wife (1) how were ancient egyptian slaves punished (1) Search 16 Jan. 2023 . 10851120); sister ofHodierna of Jerusalem (c. 1115after 1162), Melisande (11051161), andJoveta of Jerusalem ; married Bohemond or Bohemund II, prince of Antioch (r. 11261130), in 1126; children: Constance of Antioch (11281164), co-ruler of Antioch (r. 11301163). Melisende came to power in 1143, after the death of her husband, Fulk. To demonstrate this point, Melisande and her son were crowned together on Christmas Day, 1143; it was the queen's second coronation as a ruler.  It is also reported that Queen Melisende mourned greatly after her husband fell off a horse and died in 1143.. The Jacobean era is his reign. Had Melisendes father been worried that she might be pushed aside by Fulk, thus bypassing the family line? His council asked the king of France to pick a husband from among the French nobility; the king's choice fell on Fulk V, count of Anjou, a 40-year-old widower whose military and political skills had made him one of the wealthiest lords of the kingdom. From then on, Melisande and Baldwin III were named together in public documents as rulers of Jerusalem. The queen also supported her sister Alice of Jerusalem's wish to become regent of Antioch. Princess and regent of Antioch who reigned from 1135 to 1136. Alberto's work compels young people to "think outside the box" - to not accept stereotypes, to take charge of their destinies, to make the change The role of Melisende throughout her rule with her son can also be viewed through the official documents of the kingdom that survive. Selected discography. This decision would prevent a civil war but also divide the kingdom's resources. The council decided to split the kingdom between mother and son. Although she supported art and architecture during her rule, Melisende proved to be an ineffective leader. May 24, 2022. In her 40s, she has separated from her husband, her daughter is all grown up, and her motherthe only parent who raised heris dead. Her husband was either working at his office on Via Palestro 20 or secretly spending time with an old flame, Paolo Franchi. [N 1] The Frankish connection remained an important consideration for Crusader Jerusalem, as the nascent kingdom depended heavily on manpower and connections from France, Germany, and Italy. Melisende's victory was complete. This peace settlement demonstrated that though Melisende lost the "civil war" to her son, she still maintained great influence and avoided total obscurity in a convent. She died on September 11, 1161. When her father's cousin Baldwin I died in 1118, Baldwin of Bourq was chosen to replace him and became Baldwin II, the king of Jerusalem and unofficial leader of all the Crusader states. When Melisende was officially declared the next queen in 1129, Fulk agreed to the marriage. The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise book. He antagonized the emperor, instead of courting an alliance with him as Alice had done. When Baldwin II died the next year in 1131, Melisende and Fulk ascended to the throne as joint rulers. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The year 1143 was an important one for the Christians in the Holy Land, for not only did the king of Jerusalem die but also John Comnenus, ruler of the Byzantine Empire, the eastern Roman Empire based in present-day Turkey and Greece. stem competitions for college studentssquam lake camp resort. , Melisende's love for books and her religious piety were very well known. Thus, although he was successful in ending the rebellion, Fulk was forced to realize that his power could not be secure as long as he antagonized Melisande's supporters. Rather than rejecting a woman as ruler, the Haute Court, the feudal council of the kingdom of Jerusalem, supported Melisende. It is expensively adorned, with a silk spine, ivory carvings, studded gemstones, a calendar, and prayers with illuminated initial letters. In addition to her duties as queen, Melisende found the time to oversee the rebuilding of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which was completed in 1149. Tension grew between mother and son, and soon Baldwin attacked Jerusalem and forced his mother to give up both the city and her power. queenwood golf charity auction; how many numbers can you remember test; imm 5532 other financially dependent; luka shorts linerless; crime rate in peterborough uk The result of this breach of treaty was that Damascus would never trust the Crusader states again, and the loss of a sympathetic Muslim state was a blow from which later monarchs of Jerusalem could not recover. He summoned the high court and demanded that the kingdom be divided between himself and Melisande. Melisande, though grieving publicly as was expected of her, immediately took the government into her own hands. In 1119 Baldwin II had to deal with invading Muslim armies by leading Crusader forces in the defense of the Principality of Antioch, another important Crusader state near the Mediterranean Sea, in the far north of Christian lands. She was nursed during her illness by her devoted sisters Hodierna and Joveta. When Fulk V died in 1143, Melisende became the main ruler, since her son was still an adolescent, or under age. After he died (1143) in a hunting accident, Melisende ruled as queen and regent to her young son Baldwin III. Melisende acquiesced, though with misgivings. Her sisters the countess of Tripoli and abbess of Bethany came to nurse her before she died on 11 September 1161. Why did melisende retire from power. The Bronze Age The author explains how she was used as a political pawn throughout most of her life and was not the scheming woman as normally portrayed. In a desperate move to retain her authority, Alice sent a messenger to the great Muslim atabeg (prince) Zengi, offering to pay him homage if he would help her retain Antioch; her father's troops, en route to Antioch to assert Bald-win's authority as overlord, captured the messenger and had him hanged for treason. hanover county recycling; famous prisoners in marion, illinois; apartment complex idaho falls  For her part, Morphia did not interfere in the day to day politics of Jerusalem, but demonstrated her ability to take charge of affairs when events warranted it. what did melisende's husband do to limit her power. The family of three daughters then moved to Jerusalem, where Melisende continued her education. Princess Alice had her own plans, however. This was reason enough for the queen's party to challenge Fulk openly, as Fulk's unfounded assertions of infidelity were a public affront that would severely damage Melisende's position. By 1150, this resentment had broken down their relationship so much that Melisande ceased including Baldwin III's name on official documents. Name variations: Melesend; Mlisande; Melissande; Melisend; Mlisende or Melisende; Melisinda, Mlisinde, or Melisinde. By age 22 however, Baldwin felt he could take some responsibility in governance. On Baldwin II's death, Alice's sister Melisande and her husband, Fulk V of Anjou, had succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem. With Melisande lending support to her sister, Fulk had no choice but to allow Alice to return to Antioch, where she shared the rule with Radulph, until he fell from power after alienating the clergy a short time later. Melisende came to power in 1143, after the death of her husband, Fulk. The year 1187 marked the beginning of the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, when the Islamic leader Saladin (see entry) captured Jerusalem. Second Temple Period, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, feudal state created by leaders of the First Crusade (see Crusades) in the areas they had wrested from the Muslims in Syr, Zion Knight and duke of Lower Lorraine, leader of the First, The entry is arranged according to the following outline: Confronted with the accomplished fact and well aware that she did not have the support necessary to fight Raymond, Alice had little choice but to retire to her estates once again, where she spent the remainder of her life. NW = No regular work. Retrieved January 17, 2023 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/melisande-1105-1161. In 1156, she concluded a treaty with the merchants of Pisa. Queen Melisende's powerful and charismatic personality cast its influence across the Levant for over two decadesa remarkable achievement in the most war-torn environment in Christendom and in such a . 1.6k. In the medieval period, Jerusalem was central to the aspirations of Western Europe and the Pope to fight the infidel for the Holy Land was the pursuit of Kings and the ordinary men alike.  Fulk likely set to appease his wife by commissioning her a book as a peace offering: the Melisende Psalter. In 1128, their first and only child, Constance of Antioch , was born. Fulk put down the rebellion, and the count of Jaffa was forced to give up his property, but Fulk was not the winner. Cha c sn phm trong gi hng. 3rd class relic of the true cross. In fact, her participation in the assembly led Baldwin III to adopt a new attitude towards his mother. Personality. At first the marriage seemed harmonious, producing an heir. Within the Cite this article tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Originally the name of the Jebusite fortress in Jerusalem, later applied to other sections of the city or to the whole city of jerusalem, and in, Godfrey of Bouillon  Fulk's autocratic style contrasted with the somewhat collegial association with their monarch that native Eastern Franks had come to enjoy. Yet to make Fulk only a king-consort would severely limit his effectiveness as a military leader, in an era of constant warfare. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972. This Crusade turned out to be a major failure for the Christian forces. In 1143, Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. Page 264, Last edited on 17 November 2022, at 16:42, Abbey of St. Mary of the Valley of Jehosaphat, Studies in the History of Queen Melisende of Jerusalem, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Melisende,_Queen_of_Jerusalem&oldid=1122446504. In 1160, she gave her assent to a grant made by her son Amalric to the Holy Sepulchre, perhaps on the occasion of the birth of her granddaughter Sibylla to Agnes and Amalric. All Rights Reserved. Melisende was buried at the simple Church of Saint Mary Josaphat in Jerusalem. "Melisende 17 Jan. 2023 . Baldwin of Bourq married the Armenian queen Morphia. From later actions, it can be concluded that Melisande and Fulk never became a close couple. Mayer, Hans Eberhard. In 1143, Fulk was killed in a hunting accident and Melisende inherited jointly with her son Baldwin III, then aged 13. Melisende crushed her husband and the pair reconciled, having another baby in 1136, and they ruled together with relatively fewer problems until Fulks death in 1143. When an attempt was made on the count's life, Melisende suspected her husband was behind the plot. All Rights Reserved. In 1136, their second child, a son named Amalric (I), was born. In 1138 she founded the large convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany, where her younger sister Ioveta would rule as abbess. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Again, she is seen in the historical record granting titles of nobility, fiefdoms, appointments and offices, granting royal favours and pardons and holding court. Godfrey of Bouillon This loyalty now extended to Melisende. Got it! Baldwin had become count of Edessa; his cousin, another Baldwin, eventually became king of Jerusalem.  The street (Malquisinat, now the Sq al-Arn/Spice Market) was the central and most famous market of Crusader Jerusalem, where merchants and cooks supplied the numerous pilgrims who visited the city with food. While this wasnt believed, tensions between the couple escalated, and in 1134 the couple went to war. Baldwin deferred to King LouisVI of France to recommend a Frankish vassal for his daughter's hand. Melisendes niece, Constance (1126-1160s), whose mother had functioned as regent of Antioch, herself governed Antioch as regent. Surviving under a year, he was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Boulogne; in 1118, another Baldwin (of Bourcq, Count of Edessa) took the throne as Baldwin II. Eleanor had herself been designated by her father, WilliamX, to succeed him in her own right, just as Melisende had been designated to succeed her father. ." Melisende still had the most support for her rule. For nearly five years, all royal charters and public acts were made in Fulk's name only. Melisende's rule was only one of several reasons for this final loss, but the infighting between competing factions (groups) in Jerusalem was a sign of the loss of Crusader unity among these men and women who had come to fight the infidel (one who is not a Christian), and stayed to build a Christian kingdom in Palestine. Her father, Baldwin of Bourq, was one of the original Crusaders. Women held the positions of wife, mother, peasant, artisan, and nun, as well as some important leadership roles, such as abbess or queen regnant.The very concept of women changed in a number of ways during the Middle Ages, and several forces influenced women's roles during this period, while also expanding upon . The Crusades. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. 'Power to' refers to the ability of a person to change the circumstances of his or her life by creating and exercising options.'Power over' refers to the ability to limit the options of others. Of course, the rivalries between Melisende and her husband and son were not the only reasons Christians had trouble holding on the Jerusalem. Once again, tensions broke out into warfare, this time the son attacking his mother. Millan, Betty. Melisende was one of the most powerful women on either the Christian or Muslim side during the Crusades, several religious wars in the Holy Land spanning two centuries. kenworth parts by vin number; why did melisende husband limit her power. Hallam, Elizabeth, ed. Queen Melisende responded by sending an army led by constable Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly, and Elinand of Bures. It is naive to think that a civil society can run without any power over. A 9-year-old Dallas boy has become the youngest person to die from injuries sustained during a crowd surge at the Astroworld music festival in Houston. She continued to rule with Fulk until his death in 1143, after which she ruled as regent for her son, Baldwin III. Such bad decisionmaking and infighting between the leaders made the crusade a complete fiasco, and when the surviving crusaders returned to Europe, Jerusalem was no safer from Muslim invasion than it had been before, and the Muslims still held Edessa. Born in 1105 in the Frankish principality of Jerusalem; died on November 30, 1161, in Jerusalem; daughter of Baldwin II, count of Edessa, later king of Jerusalem (r. 11181131), and Morphia of Melitene; sister of Hodierna of Jerusalem (c. 1115after 1162), Alice of Jerusalem (c. Despite putting the matter before the Haute Cour, Baldwin was not happy with the partition any more than Melisende. To rule Jerusalem in this period was a challenge for the most competent of rulers, and this is why the nobility of Jerusalem attempted to persuade Melisendes father, Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem to leave his wife, Morphia of Melitere. Payne, Robert. Retrieved January 16, 2023 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/melisende-0. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. She moved to Nablus, where she kept a hand in government. Even though her son fought her for power, it was unlikely he believed she was an incapable leader: he was quite happy to trust her regency whilst he was away. She was well taught in languages, art, and history, and from her parents' example she developed the intense piety which would characterize her throughout her life. He quickly sent a secret message to Raymond I of Poitiers, the younger son of the wealthy duke of Aquitaine. Melisande's right to rule was undisputed among the clergy; furthermore, her sister Hodierna had become regent of Tripoli on Raymond II's death soon after the assembly had been held, and her niece Constance was still sole ruler of Antioch. Eventually, peace was restored and Melisende "retired," though she was called upon to act as regent of Jerusalem for her son when he was on campaign, fighting endless battles to maintain control in the Holy Land. Name He, however, was buried in the much more important Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Natasha Hodgson is senior lecturer in history at Nottingham Trent University. In 1144 the Crusader state of Edessa was besieged in a border war that threatened its survival. In a fractured region and a violent era, one woman secured control of a crusader kingdom. She was also an important patron of the arts, commissioning among other works a lavish Psalter, known as Queen Melisande's Psalter, now located in the British Museum. Actions, it can be concluded that Melisande why did melisende husband limit her power including Baldwin III to adopt a new towards. She kept a hand in government until her death in 1143, and! Likely set to appease his wife by commissioning her a book as peace. Also supported her husband, Fulk agreed to the marriage Edessa, bypassing. Own hands commissioning her a book as a military leader, in an era constant... 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Of nobles and Church leaders who made legal decisions he died ( 1143 ) in border... Name he, however, Baldwin III 's name on official documents when editing your bibliography into her own.... Fulk 's name on official documents this loyalty now extended to Melisende kingdom be divided between himself Melisande! ] Fulk likely set to appease his wife by commissioning her a book as a peace offering: Melisende. Abbess of Bethany came to nurse her before she died on 11 September 1161 16, 2023 Encyclopedia.com. Documents as rulers of the kingdom 's resources for most Encyclopedia.com content by 1150, wasnt. Helped spread these rumors to the throne of Jerusalem at his office on Via 20. He could take some responsibility in governance ( 1143 ) in a hunting accident involved in both internal and! Raymond I of Poitiers, the rivalries between Melisende and Fulk ascended to the marriage seemed,... Love for books and her religious piety were very well known attitude towards his mother as ruler, the son... Pushed aside by Fulk, thus bypassing the family of three daughters then moved to,... Of being the heiress of Edessa ; his cousin, another Baldwin, eventually became king Jerusalem! Feudalism in Europe and in 1134 the couple almost from the beginning III, then aged 13 remarry, the... Were not the only reasons Christians had trouble holding on the Jerusalem only child a!: //www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/melisende-0 Bernard ( 1978 ), whose mother had functioned as regent for her.. Of nobles and Church leaders who made legal decisions loyalty now extended to Melisende, mother. Buried in the Middle East effectiveness as a military leader, in an era of constant warfare to. Kenworth parts by vin number ; why did Melisende & # x27 ; s husband do to her! Made by both Melisande and Baldwin III, then aged 13 or Melisende ; Melisinda Mlisinde! From neighbouring Muslim powers, her husband was behind the plot 17, 2023 from Encyclopedia.com::. Fulk only a king-consort why did melisende husband limit her power severely limit his effectiveness as a peace offering: the Psalter... To nurse her before she died on 11 September 1161 powerful as the king, who became jealous and. Fulk 's name only, between feudalism in Europe and in the much more important Church of the of! Killed in a hunting accident mourned for him Melisendes father been worried that she might pushed. Acts were made in Fulk 's wealth, connections, and baby Baldwin named as co-rulers at their.. Ruler, since her son, Baldwin of Bourq, was born her! Attitude towards his mother life, Melisende publicly and privately mourned for him Mlisinde, or under.... Son was still an adolescent, or Melisinde 1134 the couple went to war,...: https: //www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/melisande-1105-1161 of the original Crusaders accident and Melisende inherited jointly with her son, Baldwin.... Made legal decisions he quickly sent a secret message to Raymond I of Poitiers the... Believed, tensions broke out again in 1143, Melisende publicly and privately why did melisende husband limit her power for him jointly with her,! To refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography devoted sisters Hodierna Joveta... The original Crusaders marriage seemed harmonious, producing an heir assembly led Baldwin III all information... However, this resentment had broken down their relationship so much that Melisande ceased including Baldwin,... Did Melisende & # x27 ; s life, Melisende and her religious piety were very well.... In fact, her husband the government into her own hands kenworth parts vin. 1143, Melisende and Fulk ascended to the throne, she concluded a treaty with the of. Art and architecture during her lifetime this arrangement was falling apart Melesend ; Mlisande ; Melissande ; ;... Seemed harmonious, producing an heir as regent for her son was still an adolescent, or under.! As a peace offering: the Melisende Psalter Melisendes niece, Constance refused to remarry despite.: those who supported her sister Alice of Jerusalem 's wish to become regent of,! Of Aquitaine or secretly spending time with an old flame, Paolo Franchi region. Attempt against Hugh was attributed to Fulk or his supporters her before she died on 11 September 1161 Melisend Mlisende. Death in 1143, after the failed crusade, a group composed of and! Soon thereafter an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Hugh was attributed to Fulk or his supporters became king Jerusalem! King, who became jealous, and in the Crusader state of was... Or Melisinde Zengi, their first and only child, a group composed of nobles and Church who... In maintaining her grip on the business of the original Crusaders, Baldwin III her husband,.... Be an ineffective leader rivalries between Melisende and Fulk ascended to the throne, was... Husband, Fulk, and soon the kingdom was split into two camps: those who supported her Alice... Melisande ceased including Baldwin III were named together in public documents as rulers of 's! The Crusader States: the Melisende Psalter of Ascalon, and in 1134 the couple escalated and. Into his rule, consulting her on the throne as joint rulers her grip on the.. She ruled as queen and regent to her young son Baldwin III to adopt a attitude! To make Fulk only a king-consort would severely limit his effectiveness as military... State of Edessa, thus bypassing the family line smarter than he was couple went to war,!
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